CODES for Additives in food

E 322                      Beef

E 422                      Alcohol

E 442                      Alcohol & Chemical

E 471                      Alcohol & Beef

E 481                      Mixture of Beef & Pork

E 627                      Dangerous chemical

E 472                      Mixture of Beef, meat & Pork

E 631                      Oil extracted from pigs fats

E631 : Sodium inosinate

Origin:
Sodium salt of inosinic acid (E630), a natural acid, that is mainly present in animals. Commercially prepared from meat or fish (sardines). May also be produced by bacterial fermentation of sugars.

Function & Characteristics:
Flavour enhancer. Inosinic acid and inosinates do not have the specific umami taste but strongly enhance many other flavours, thereby reducing the amounts of salt or other flavour enhancers needed in a product.

Products:
Used in many products.

Acceptable daily intake (ADI):
None determined. Inosinates may not be used in products intended for children under 12 weeks.

Side effects:
Asthmatic people should avoid inosinates. As inosinates are metabolised to purines, they should be avoided by people suffering from gout. However, the concentrations used are generally so low that no effects are to be expected.

Dietary restrictions:
Inosinates are generally produced from meat, but partly also from fish. They are thus not suitable for vegans and vegetarians, and in most cases not suitable for Jews, Muslims and Hindus, depending on the origin of the product. Only the producer can provide information on the origin.

Regarding the issue of E631 in Lays products in Pakistan we would like to refer to the Lays Pakistan Statement and the certification of Halal of Lays products. The inosinate is made from tapioca starch and no animal products are involved in the production.

E472 Esters of mono- and diglycerides

E472a Acetic acid esters of mono- and diglycerides
E472b Lactic acid esters of mono- and diglycerides
E472c Citric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides
E472d Tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides
E472e Diacetyltartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides
E472f Mixed esters (tartaric, acetic) of mono- and diglycerides

Origin:
Esters of synthetic fats, produced from glycerol, natural fatty acids and another organic acid (acetic, lactic, tartaric, citric). The fatty acids are mainly from plant origin, but also fats of animal origin may be used. The product generally is a mixture of different components, with a composition similar to partially digested natural fat esterified with other natural acids..

Function & characteristics:
Emulsifiers and stabilisers.

Products:
M any different products

Acceptable Daily Intake:
None determined except for 30 mg/kg bodyweight of tartaric acid for E472d-f.

Side effects:
None known. The products are first digested to the individual acids and the fats. The body metabolises all components identical to the normal acids and natural fat. The individual components of the mono- and diglycerides are also produced normally in the body when digesting normal fat.

Dietary restrictions:
Although mainly vegetable oils are used, the use of animal fat (incl. pork) can not be excluded. Several groups, such as vegans, Muslims and Jews thus avoid these products. Only the producer can give detailed information on the origin of the fatty acids. Chemically the fatty acids from vegetable or animal origin are identical.

E 481: Sodium stearoyl lactate

Origin: 

Combination of stearic acid and lactic acid, resulting in a mixture of several components. The origin of stearic acid can be or plant or animal fat, although in practice nearly always vegetable oil will be used.

Function & characteristics:
Emulsifier and stabiliser

Products:
Bakery products

Acceptable Daily Intake:
Up to 20 mg/kg bodyweight

Side effects:
None, both lactic acid and stearic acid are normal products in human metabolism.

Dietary restrictions:
Although mainly vegetable oils are used, the use of animal fat (incl. pork) can not be excluded. Several groups, such as vegans, Muslims and Jews thus avoid these products. Only the producer can give detailed information on the origin of the fatty acids. Chemically the fatty acids from vegetable or animal origin are identical.

E471 Mono- and diglycerides

Origin:
Synthetic fats, produced from glycerol and natural fatty acids, mainly from plant origin, but also fats of animal origin may be used. The product generally is a mixture of different products, with a composition similar to partially digested natural fat.

Function & characteristics:
Emulsifiers and stabilisers.

Products:
Many different products.

Acceptable Daily Intake:
None determined.

Side effects:
None known. The body metabolises the products as any other fat. The individual components are also produced normally in the body when digesting normal fat.

Dietary restrictions:
Although mainly vegetable oils are used, the use of animal fat (incl. pork) can not be excluded. Several groups, such as vegans, Muslims and Jews thus avoid these products. Only the producer can give detailed information on the origin of the fatty acids. Chemically the fatty acids from vegetable or animal origin are identical.

E442 Ammonium phophatides

Origin:
Obtained from ammonia and ph osphorylated fatty acids, mainly from rapeseed oil.

Function & characteristics:
Stabiliser and emulsifier.

Products:
Only used in chocolate and cocoa products

Acceptable Daily Intake:
Up to 30 mg/kg bodyweight

Side effects:
None known when used in foods

Dietary restrictions:
E442 is generally produced with rapeseed oil and can thus be consumed by all religious groups. However, the use of animal fat (incl. pork) can not be completed excluded.

E631 : Sodium inosinate

Origin:
Sodium salt of inosinic acid (E630), a natural acid, that is mainly present in animals. Commercially prepared from meat or fish (sardines). May also be produced by bacterial fermentation of sugars.

Function & Characteristics:
Flavour enhancer. Inosinic acid and inosinates do not have the specific umami taste but strongly enhance many other flavours, thereby reducing the amounts of salt or other flavour enhancers needed in a product.

Products:
Used in many products.

Acceptable daily intake (ADI):
None determined. Inosinates may not be used in products intended for children under 12 weeks.

Side effects:
Asthmatic people should avoid inosinates. As inosinates are metabolised to purines, they should be avoided by people suffering from gout. However, the concentrations used are generally so low that no effects are to be expected.

Dietary restrictions:
Inosinates are generally produced from meat, but partly also from fish. They are thus not suitable for vegans and vegetarians, and in most cases not suitable for Jews, Muslims and Hindus, depending on the origin of the product. Only the producer can provide information on the origin.

Regarding the issue of E631 in Lays products in Pakistan we would like to refer to the Lays Pakistan Statement and the certification of Halal of Lays products. The inosinate is made from tapioca starch and no animal products are involved in the production.

E472 Esters of mono- and diglycerides

E472a Acetic acid esters of mono- and diglycerides
E472b Lactic acid esters of mono- and diglycerides
E472c Citric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides
E472d Tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides
E472e Diacetyltartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides
E472f Mixed esters (tartaric, acetic) of mono- and diglycerides

Origin:
Esters of synthetic fats, produced from glycerol, natural fatty acids and another organic acid (acetic, lactic, tartaric, citric). The fatty acids are mainly from plant origin, but also fats of animal origin may be used. The product generally is a mixture of different components, with a composition similar to partially digested natural fat esterified with other natural acids..

Function & characteristics:
Emulsifiers and stabilisers.

Products:
M any different products

Acceptable Daily Intake:
None determined except for 30 mg/kg bodyweight of tartaric acid for E472d-f.

Side effects:
None known. The products are first digested to the individual acids and the fats. The body metabolises all components identical to the normal acids and natural fat. The individual components of the mono- and diglycerides are also produced normally in the body when digesting normal fat.

Dietary restrictions:
Although mainly vegetable oils are used, the use of animal fat (incl. pork) can not be excluded. Several groups, such as vegans, Muslims and Jews thus avoid these products. Only the producer can give detailed information on the origin of the fatty acids. Chemically the fatty acids from vegetable or animal origin are identical.

E 481: Sodium stearoyl lactate

Origin:
Combination of stearic acid and lactic acid, resulting in a mixture of several components. The origin of stearic acid can be or plant or animal fat, although in practice nearly always vegetable oil will be used.

Function & characteristics:
Emulsifier and stabiliser

Products:
Bakery products

Acceptable Daily Intake:
Up to 20 mg/kg bodyweight

Side effects:
None, both lactic acid and stearic acid are normal products in human metabolism.

Dietary restrictions:
Although mainly vegetable oils are used, the use of animal fat (incl. pork) can not be excluded. Several groups, such as vegans, Muslims and Jews thus avoid these products. Only the producer can give detailed information on the origin of the fatty acids. Chemically the fatty acids from vegetable or animal origin are identical.

E471 Mono- and diglycerides

Origin:
Synthetic fats, produced from glycerol and natural fatty acids, mainly from plant origin, but also fats of animal origin may be used. The product generally is a mixture of different products, with a composition similar to partially digested natural fat.

Function & characteristics:
Emulsifiers and stabilisers.

Products:
Many different products.

Acceptable Daily Intake:
None determined.

Side effects:
None known. The body metabolises the products as any other fat. The individual components are also produced normally in the body when digesting normal fat.

Dietary restrictions:
Although mainly vegetable oils are used, the use of animal fat (incl. pork) can not be excluded. Several groups, such as vegans, Muslims and Jews thus avoid these products. Only the producer can give detailed information on the origin of the fatty acids. Chemically the fatty acids from vegetable or animal origin are identical.

E442 Ammonium phophatides

Origin:
Obtained from ammonia and ph osphorylated fatty acids, mainly from rapeseed oil.

Function & characteristics:
Stabiliser and emulsifier.

Products:
Only used in chocolate and cocoa products

Acceptable Daily Intake:
Up to 30 mg/kg bodyweight

Side effects:
None known when used in foods

Dietary restrictions:
E442 is generally produced with rapeseed oil and can thus be consumed by all religious groups. However, the use of animal fat (incl. pork) can not be completed excluded.